Myocarditis complicating H1N1 pneumonia: Case report and literature review
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7th Pulmonology Department and Asthma Center, Athens Chest Hospital, Greece
Cardiology Department, Athens Chest Hospital, Greece
Metropolitan Hospital, Greece
Radiology Department, Athens Chest Hospital, Greece
Publication date: 2021-06-17
Corresponding author
Likurgos Kolilekas   

7th Pulmonary Department, Athens Chest Hospital "Sotiria", 152 Mesogion Ave, 11527, Athens, Greece
Pneumon 2016;29(1):78-83
These authors have equally contributed to this work.

Influenza infection most commonly affects the upper and lower respiratory tracts, but can involve also extrapulmonary sites, including the myocardium. We report a case of a previously healthy adult diagnosed with pneumonia complicated with myocarditis caused by H1N1 influenza virus, and we review the literature on influenza myocarditis. The patient was male, 37 years old, and presented in the emergency department on January this year, with fever, pleuritic chest pain and shortness of breath of ten days duration. Chest X-ray and CT-scan findings depicted bilateral infiltrates compatible with severe pneumonia and the test for H1N1 in nasopharyngeal secretions was positive for H1N1. Because of elevated cardiac enzymes and abnormal electrocardiograph (ECG), myocarditis was suspected and finally confirmed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR). We concluded that myocarditis of various severity is an unusual and potentially fatal complication of H1N1 infection and high level of clinical suspicion is essential for timely diagnosis and treatment.
All the authors declare that they do not have a financial relationship with a commercial entity that has an interest in the subject of this manuscript.
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