ORIGINAL ARTICLE
The cost of tuberculosis in Cyprus in 2009
 
More details
Hide details
1
Pneumonology Clinic, General Hospital of Nicosia
2
PhD Student, Open University of Cyprus
3
Associate Professor, Open University of Cyprus
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Tonia Adamide
General Hospital of Nicosia Old Road Nicosia-Lemessos 215 2029 Strovolos Nicosia, Cyprus
 
Pneumon 2012;25(2):191–197
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
There has been a major resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) in recent years worldwide. In Cyprus the tuberculin index is below 1%, in spite of an increase in the incidence of TB, particularly among foreign residents. The purpose of this study, the first of its kind in Cyprus, was to calculate the total cost of TB in Cyprus in the year 2009. The calculation was based on complete, detailed data on patients with TB collected from the District of Nicosia, which were then used to extrapolate the cost of TB for the whole of Cyprus. The patients were divided into 5 groups: those with active and those with latent disease diagnosed in 2009, those with active and those with latent disease diagnosed in 2008 who continued treatment in 2009, and contacts in the patients’ close environment who were investigated for TB in 2009. The patient records were studied and cost assessment was made for all tests, hospital days and medication prescribed for each patient for the year 2009. The cost assessment was based on Cyprus Government tariffs used for non-beneficiaries of the system. The total cost for the whole of Cyprus was estimated at €661.937.52, of which €330,768.57 was incurred by the District of Nicosia. The highest costs were generated by those patients with active disease, a mean cost of €6,479.35 per patient from the long-term care programmes within the directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) framework. For the second most costly group, the patients with latent TB, the mean annual cost per patient was €1,171.77. According to the findings of this study the cost of TB in Cyprus closely resembles that in other developed countries. 
 
REFERENCES (22)
1.
Kannavaki S, Nikolaou S, Karampella S, et al. Επιδημιολογικές μεταβολές της φυματίωσης στην Ελλάδα, από τη συνεχιζόμενη μετανάστευση. Pneumon 2005; 18(1):74-83.
 
2.
Suk J, Semenza J. Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe. American Journal of Public Health .I November 2011; Voi 101, No,.
 
3.
World Health Organization. Tuberculosis. World Health Organization Available on the World Wide Web:http://www.who.int/topics/tube..., (date of access 16-3-11).
 
4.
Progressing towards TB elimination, special report. European Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Stockholm: ECDC; 2010.
 
5.
Grimard F, Harlihg G. The impact of Tuberculosis on economic growth. Available on the World Wide Web :neumann.hec.ca/neudc2004/fp/gr..., (date of access 16-3-11).
 
6.
Archives Office of Epidemiological Surveillance and Control of Infectious Diseases, Cyprus Department of Health.
 
7.
Wartz R, White WD. The cost of Tuberculosis: utilization and estimated charges for the diagnosis and treatment of Tuberculosis in public health system. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1999 3(5):382-387.
 
8.
Shulkin D, Brennan P. The cost of caring for patients with tuberculosis: Planning for a disease on the rise. AJIC 1995 Feb Vol. 23 Issue 1, p1-4.
 
9.
Bloom BR, Murray JL. Tuberculosis: commentary on a reemerging killer. Science 1992; 257:1055-63.
 
10.
Arno P, Murray C, Bonuck K, Alsabes P. The economic impact of Tuberculosis in hospitals in New York City: a preliminary analysis. J Law Med Ethics 1993; 21:317-323.
 
11.
Brown R, Miiler B, Taylor W, et al. Health care expenditures for Tuberculosis in the United States. Arch Intern Med 1995; 155:1595-1600.
 
12.
Leff D, Leff A. Tuberculosis control policies in major metropolitan health departments in the United States. Am Rev Respi Dis 1993; 148:1530-1536.
 
13.
Long, Q. Helen, S., Tuohong, Zhang S., Garner T, Garner P. Patient medical costs for tuberculosis treatment and impact on adherence in China: a systematic review. BMC Public Health 2011; 11:393.
 
14.
Steffen R, Menzies D, Oxlade O, et al. Patients’ Costs and CostEffectiveness of Tuberculosis Treatment in DOTS and Non-DOTS Facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PLoS ONE 2010, 5, 11.
 
15.
Tuberculosis: clinical diagnosis and management of tuberculosis, and measures for its prevention and control. Costing report and costing template. Available on the World Wide Web:http://www.dh.gov.uk/terms (date of access 10-3-11).
 
16.
Fitzpatrick C, Floyd K. A Systematic Review of the Cost and Cost Effectiveness of Treatment for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Pharmacoeconomics 2012; 30(1): 63-80.
 
17.
Fryatt RJ. Review of published cost-effectiveness studies on tuberculosis treatment programs. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1997; 1(2):101-109.
 
18.
Cain K, Benoit S, Winston C, Mac Kenzie W. Tuberculosis among foreign-born person in the United States. JAMA 2008, 300(4):405- 412.
 
19.
Dahle UR, Eldholm V, Winje BA, Mannsaker T, Heldal E. Impact of immigration on the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in low-incidence country. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007; 176(9):930-5; 39(3):855-61.
 
20.
Gender and Tuberculosis: Socio-cultural aspects. Int J Tuber Lung Dis; 12(7):825-866, Available on the World Wide Web: http://apps.who.int/tdr/public..., (date of access 16-3-11).
 
21.
Donald P, Marais B, Barry C. Αge and the epidemiology and pathogenesis of Tuberculosis. The Lancet 2010; 375(9729):1852 1854.
 
22.
Fitzgerald JM, Gafni A. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the routine use of isοniazid prophylaxis in patients with a positive Mantoux skin test. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990; 142:848-53.
 
eISSN:1791-4914
ISSN:1105-848X