Potential mechanisms of mediastinum involvement in SARS-COV-2 infection
More details
Hide details
Pneumonology Department of General Hospital of Serres, Greece
Publication date: 2021-08-30
Corresponding author
Antonis Antoniadis   

Pneumonology Clinic, General Hospital of Serres, Greece
Pneumon 2020;33(4):1–4
Wang XF, Yuan J, Zheng YJ et al. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 34 children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection in Shenzhen. Chin J Pediatrics 2020;58:Ε008.
Rehman S, Majeed T, Ansari MA et al. Current scenario of COVID-19 in pediatric age group and physiology of immune and thymus response. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 2020; 2567-73.
Herold MJ, McPherson KG, Reichardt HM. Glucocorticoids in T cell apoptosis and function. Cell Mol Life 2006; 63:60–72.
Suzuki H, Motohara M, Miyake A. et al. Intrathymic effect of acute pathogenic SHIV infection on T-lineage cells in newborn macaques. Microbiol Immunol 2005; 49:667–79.
Savino W, Leite de Moraes MC, Silva Barbosa SD, et al. Is the thymus a target organ in infectious diseases? Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1992; 87:73–8.
Wang D, Muller N, McPherson KG, et al. Glucocorticoids engage different signal transduction pathways to induce apoptosis in thymocytes and mature T cells. J Immunol 2006; 176:1695–702.
Ho Tsong Fang R, Colantonio AD, Uittenbogaart CH. The role of the thymus in HIV infection: a 10 year perspective. AIDS 2008; 22:171–84.
Ahmed R, King CC, Oldstone MB. Virus-lymphocyte interaction: T cells of the helper subset are infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus during persistent infection in vivo. J Virol 1987;61:1571–6.
Korostoff JM, Nakada MT, Faas SJ, Blank KJ, Gaulton GN. Neonatal exposure to thymotropic gross murine leukemia virus induces virus-specific immunologic nonresponsiveness. J Exp Med 1990;172:1765–75.
Subbarao K, McAuliffe J, Vogel L, et al. Prior infection and passive transfer of neutralizing antibody prevent replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the respiratory tract of mice. J Virol 2004; 78:3572-7.
Hamming I, Timens W, Bulthuis ML, et al. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis. J Pathol 2004; 203:631-7.
Wang K, Chen W, Zhou YS, et al. SARS-CoV-2 invades host cells via a novel route: CD147-spike protein. 2020; BioRxiv doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.0....
Nunes-Alves C, Nobrega C, Behar SM, et al. Tolerance has its limits: how the thymus copes with infection. Trends Immunol 2013; 34:502-10.
Ferrer R. Lymphadenopathy: differential diagnosis and evaluation. Am Fam Physician 1998; 58:1313-20.
Hamilton-Easton AM, Eichelberger M. Microbiology virus-specific antigen presentation by different subsets of cells from lung and mediastinal lymph node tissues of influenza virus-infected mice. Journal of Virology 1995; 69:6359–66.
Bao C, Liu X, Zhang H, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) CT findings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Radiol 2020; 17:701–9.
Zhu J, Zhong Z, Li H, et al. CT imaging features of 4121 patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis. J Med Virol 2020; 92:891–902.
Valette X, du Cheyron D, Goursaud S. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy in patients with severe COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis 2020; https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-....
Sardanelli F, Cozzi A, Monfardini L, et al. Association of me diastinal lymphadenopathy with COVID-19 prognosis. The Lancet. Infectious diseases. 2020; https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-....
Newcomb AE, Clarke CP. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum. A benign curiosity or a significant problem? Chest 2005; 128:3298- 302.
Maunder RJ, Pierson DJ, Hudson LD. Subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Arch Intern Med 1984; 144:1447–53.
Udupa S, Hameed T, Kovesi T. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema associated with pandemic (H1N1) influenza in three children. CMAJ 2011; 183: 220-2.
Zhou C, Gao C, Xie Y, Xu M. COVID-19 with spontaneous pneumomediastinum. Lancet Infect Dis 2020; 20:510.
Xiaoyu L, Xie Y. 2020. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in COVID-19 pneumonia. RSNA case collections 2020; DOI: 10.1148/cases.20201299.
Kolani S, Houari N, Haloua M, et al. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum occurring in the SARS-COV-2 infection IDCases 2020;21:e00806.
Gralinski LE, Baric RS. Molecular pathology of emerging coronavirus infections. J Pathol 2015;235:185–95.
Antoniadis A, Pechlivanidou R, Bouros E, Bouros D. Stem cells and cocid-19 PNEUMON 2020; 33:1-3.
Bouros D. BCG vaccination and Covid-19 protection. PNEUMON 2020; 33:7-9.