Water-pipe Smoking among young healthy smokers: Immediate effects on breathing pattern, respiratory drive and mechanics of tidal breathing
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George D. Behrakis RESEARCH LAB, Hellenic Cancer Society, Athens, Greece
Institute of Public Health- The American College of Greece, Athens, Greece
Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Athens
Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece
Corresponding author
Anna S. Tzortzi   

Institute of Public Health - The American College of Greece, 17b Ipitou street, Plaka Athens, Greece
Pneumon 2018;31(3):151-158
The present study assessed the immediate respiratory effects of water-pipe smoking (WPS) specifically focusing on tidal breathing examining Impulse Oscillometry (IOS), Control of Breathing (CoB) and exhaled CO (eCO) among young healthy adults.

A cross-over study design with sample size of 50 young healthy smokers was used. All measurements were taken immediately pre and post a Control and Experimental session. Repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) and log-transformations were used for comparisons between pre-post and sessions. Significance was set to p<0.05.

During the Experimental session, TI/TE, TI/Ttot (p<0.001), P0.1 (p=0.005) and P0.1/(VT/TI) (p=0.021) increased significantly while TE/Ttot decreased (p=0.003) post WPS. IOS parameters Ζ5, R5, R10, R20 and fdr all increased significantly immediately post WPS (p<0.001) as did eCO and COHb (p<0.001).

A 30-minute session of WPS altered respiratory mechanics expressed by the increased large and peripheral airways resistance, control of breathing expressed by increased P0.1 and modified the tidal breathing pattern.

CO: Carbon monoxide, COHb: Carboxyhaemoglobin, CoB: Control of Breathing, TI/Ttot:Duty cycle, eCO: Exhaled carbon monoxide, VT/TI: Mean inspiratory flow, ANOVA: Repeated measurements analysis of variance, f: Respiratory frequency, V·E: Minute Ventilation, WPS: Water-pipe smoking
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