Bacillus Calmette-Guerin: Established and emerging roles for an old friend
More details
Hide details
Respiratory Medicine Department, University Hospital of Patras, Greece
Corresponding author
Fotios Sampsonas   

Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of Patras, 26504, Rion, Patras, Greece
Pneumon 2020;33(1):10-12
No conflicts of interest to declare.
Luca S, Mihaescu T. History of BCG vaccine. Maedica (Buchar) 2012; 8:53-8.
World Health Organization. BCG vaccines: WHO position paper. Weekly Epidemiological Record. February 2018; 9:73-96.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2019; 68:937-42.
Mangtani P, Abubakar I, Ariti C, et al. Protection by BCG vaccine against tuberculosis: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis 2014; 58:470-80.
Abubakar I , Pimpin L, Ariti C, et al. Systematic review and metaanalysis of the current evidence on the duration of protection by bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccination against tuberculosis. Health Technol Assess 2013; 17:1-372.
Colditz GA, Brewer TF, Berkey CS, et al. Efficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosis. Meta-analysis of the published literature. JAMA 1994; 271:698-702.
Roy A, Eisenhut M, Harris RJ, et al. Effect of BCG vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2014; 349:(g4643)1-11.
Merle CS, Cunha SS, Rodrigues LC. BCG vaccination and leprosy protection: review of current evidence and status of BCG in leprosy control. Expert Rev Vaccines 2010; 9:209-22.
Trnka L, Dankova D, Svandova E. Six years’ experience with the discontinuation of BCG vaccination. 4. Protective effect of BCG vaccination against the Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex. Tuber Lung Dis 1994; 75:348-52.
Higgins JPT, Soares-Weiser K, López-López JA, et al. Association of BCG, DTP, and measles containing vaccines with childhood mortality: systematic review. BMJ 2016; 355:i5170.
Mukherjee S, Subramaniam R, Chen H, et al. Boosting efferocytosis in alveolar space using BCG vaccine to protect host against influenza pneumonia. PLoS One 2017; 12:1-19.
Kleinnijenhuis J, Quintin J, Preijers F, et al. Bacille CalmetteGuerin induces NOD2-dependent nonspecific protection from reinfection via epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012; 109:17537-42.
Parra M, Liu X, Derrick SC, et al. Molecular analysis of non-specific protection against murine malaria induced by BCG vaccination. PLoS One 2013; 8:(e661150)1-8.
Arts RJW, Moorlag SJCFM, Novakovic B, et al. BCG vaccination protects against experimental viral infection in humans through the induction of cytokines associated with trained immunity. Cell Host Microbe 2018; 23:89-100.e5.
Usher NT, Chang S, Howard RS, et al. Association of BCG Vaccination in Childhood With Subsequent Cancer Diagnoses: A 60-Year Follow-up of a Clinical Trial. JAMA Netw Open 2019; 2(e1912014)1-12.
Babjuk M, Bohle A, Burger M, et al. EAU guidelines on nonmuscle invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: update 2016. Eur Urol 2017; 71:447-61.
Kremenovic M, Schenk M, Lee DJ. Clinical and molecular insights into BCG immunotherapy for melanoma. J Intern Med 2020; Mar 4. doi: 10.1111/joim.13037. Online ahead of print.
Salmon C, Conus F, Parent MÉ, Benedetti A, Rousseau MC. Association between Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination and lymphoma risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol 2020; 65:(101696)1-20.
Linehan MF, Nurmatov U, Frank TL, Niven RM, Baxter DN, Sheikh A. Does BCG vaccination protect against childhood asthma? Final results from the Manchester Community Asthma Study retrospective cohort study and updated systematic review and meta-analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2014;133:688-95.
Berg MK, Yu Q, Salvador CE, Melani I, Kitayama S. Mandated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination predicts flattened curves for the spread of COVID-19. medRxiv 2020. doi:10.1101 /2020.04.05.20054163. Preprint.
Ayoub BM. COVID-19 vaccination clinical trials should consider multiple doses of BCG. Pharmazie 2020; 75:159.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top