Primary bronchiolar disorders: diagnosis and treatment
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Pneumonology Department, “VenizeleioPananeio” General Hospital, Herakleio, Crete
Konstantinos Pappas   

Pneumonology Department, “Venizeleio-Pananeio” General Hospital, Herakleio, Crete Knossos Avenue, POB 44
Pneumon 2010;23(1):64–79
Bronchiolitis is a generic term applied to a variety of inflammatory diseases that affect the bronchioles, sparing a considerable portion of the other parenchymal structures, in which both inflammatory cells and mesenchymal tissue are present. Bronchiolitis occurs in a variety of clinical settings and may be associated with large airway disease and parenchymal disease. The symptoms and signs of bronchiolitis are nonspecific and polymorphous. The course is usually chronic, but it may be acute or subacute. The advent of high resolution computerized tomography scan (HRCT) has enabled the identification of more specific patterns that correlate with the involvement of the small airways, and it is clinically useful for confirmation of suspected bronchiolar lesions. Recently, improvement has been noted in the prognosis and clinical outcome of the disease mainly as a result of the application of macrolide treatment. Currently many clinical trials are in progress aimed at the identification of the most appropriate treatment for each specific type of bronchiolitis. 
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